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Курган, 21–22 апреля года КУРГАН 2 УДК 94(57) «13/17» () ББК Матвеев А. В., Татауров С. Ф. Сибирское ханство: военно- политические author of this article analyzes the problem of reliability of messages about the . controversial issues: the problem of the dating of the Bashkir movement, the. Author content .. петровском погребении 7 кургана 2 могильника Кривое Озеро, где были .. петровских в него не включается [Матвеев, , с. of the understanding of Sintashta-type monuments dating back to the boundary OF ARCHAEOLOGISTS (A LETTER FROM N.N. BORTVIN TO K.V. Найти в клубе TET-a-TET: Матвеев Курган знакомства, девушки, женщины анкеты девушек, юношей, мужчин, женщин - просмотр без регистрации.
Some attempts to reflect on this topic from a new perspective were made, for example, by L. Arcus Arcus, and N. GrigorievaT. MitinaT. One of the few articles that are not only about an onscreen but also about a media image of the teacher belongs to A.
By the way, both A. Shipulina and some others, in our opinion, rightly point out that beginning from the s — s one can feel a significant decline of the social and moral status of the teacher on the screen. Anyway, we failed to find any meaningful analysis of school and university in Soviet and post-Soviet audiovisual media in Western research works during our survey on the topic; though, of course, they studied the image of school and university in Western audiovisual media texts, mainly in the cinema Ayers, ; Bauer, ; Burbach and Figgins, ; Considine, ; Dalton.
Let us give a generalized hermeneutic analysis of Soviet films about school and university with the help of technologies suggested by C. Bazalgette Bazalgette, and U. For this purpose we will roughly divide Soviet films about school and university into the following groups: It stands to reason that these timeframes of the periods, in our opinion, cannot be precisely defined; the same goes with attaching films to a certain period.Матвеев Курган
A relative creative freedom amid the ideological censorship in culture and arts enabled Soviet artists, writers, photographers, theatre workers and film-makers to carry out radical experiments with the form. Due to this relative freedom hundreds of western entertainment films were widely shown during the NEP years.
The new economic policy in the USSR led to the establishment of incorporated, cooperative film companies, and in the s the Soviet film industry actually worked in a competitive market that revived genre commercial film making. It goes without saying, the political and sociocultural conditions, events that contributed to the plot and film production of Soviet films of the s could not but influence films about children and for children. Hence, for example, there were produced films about exploits of teenagers during the civil war, about homeless children and pioneers, about eradication of illiteracy and so on Red Devils, ; Vanka — a Young Pioneer, ; The Island of Young Pioneers, ; Golden Honey, ; Small and Big, ; Torn Sleeves, ; Tanka — the Bar Girl,et al.
How the knowledge of real historic events of a given period promotes awareness of these media texts, examples of historical allusions in these media texts. There were a lot of films about children in particular, about homeless children in the s in contrast with films about school and university — there were about a dozen of them.
And this is understandable from the commercial point 9 of view: Sociocultural, ideological, worldview, religious contexts Ideology, world outlook of these media texts authors in the sociocultural context; ideology and world culture reflected in the media texts. The communist ideology in the USSR failed to attain its objective in the s since the new economic policy prevented complete state regulation and total censorship of film making as well as of culture in general.
The world outlook of people in Soviet silent films about school was entirely optimistic: The value hierarchy in this worldview was: Adherence to such values used to be the basic stereotype of success. Such values in the cinema were not only to be reflected but also impressed, formed and strengthened. Structure and narrative devices in these media texts The structure, plot, representativeness, ethics, genre modification, iconography, characters can be roughly presented as follows: Venue and period of media texts The setting of the media texts: And even films about school did not focus on studies but on the vigorous pioneer and Komsomol activity.
Household goods and living conditions: Devices of reality representation: Their parents have various professions. Photos of the s give us a glimpse of the appearance, clothes and constitution of Soviet school students and teachers of that time.
And if there were characters who showed negative traits, they changed for the better in the end… Significant changes in the lives of the characters: Problem encountered by the character: As for teachers in the films, they used to be portrayed: Naturally, there were also teachers-enemies in the films of the s.
Besides that this professor maligned honest people, left his wife, and to crown it all killed his friend to conceal his past crimes… 12 2. Soviet films about school and university of the Stalin era and the first post-Stalin years Venue; historical, sociocultural, political and ideological contexts Historical background of media texts, market conditions that contributed to the plot and creation of the media texts, impact of that time events on the media texts.
The greater part of this historic period coincides with the peak of the Stalin totalitarian era of the socialist regime national domain, the communist party and its ideology, I. The period of forcible collectivization of private peasant farms was followed by the famine which claimed the lives of 7 million people Statement…, The second half of the s was marked by mass repressions which affected as many as 4 million people, about a million of whom were shot Roginsky, The Great Patriotic War of was the most serious test for Soviet people that took the lives of tens of millions of people.
And though they were primarily intended for children and youth, the topic of school was not major there. It goes without saying, that the political and sociocultural conditions, events contributed to the plot and creation of these films, dictated their rules. Good school children were always on the side of Bolsheviks while worse students they still appeared on the screen either improved in the end or were duly punished.
For obvious reasons the Soviet films of the s — s did not even mention the terrible famine ofmass repressions and concentration camps, but they contained a lot of revolutionary politics, spies and collectivism ideas in them.
Grammar school students carried bullets in their school bags to Bolsheviks in the film The Lonely White Sail A teenage gypsy in the film Friends from a Gipsy Camp behaved in the same way. Courageous kids helped the Soviet border patrol in the film Ai-Gul The spy film Gaitchy told about a pioneer who also assisted frontier guards: The film High Award related a story about a spy who infiltrated under a mask of a clown into a country house of a Soviet aircraft designer where his children were spending their vacation.
The film The Train to Moscow showed children who prevented a train crash. In the film Captain Varya a girl rescued a lighthouse-keeper. The topic of school was not mentioned in the trilogy by M. We share the view of N. Other Soviet film studios also made films about children and school during this period, though it did not make any difference, since there were very few such films.
If it was scarcely mentioned it was given little screen time, and the episodes connected with school served as some background of the plot as in the unissued film Father and Son by M. The unsuccessful films Class Seven by Y.
Protazanov and Personal File by A. Arcus gives the following reasons for that: This conception seems weak to us due to the following reasons: For example, in the film The Red Scarf a brother and a sister study in different schools — for male and female students, whereas in the film Alesha Ptitsyn Develops his Character the main character, who learns that a woman-trainee would teach them a lesson, reacts so: And his classmate agrees with him: Sociocultural, ideological, worldview, religious contexts Ideology, world outlook of these media texts authors in the sociocultural context; ideology, world culture reflected in the media texts.
The dominant communist ideology, total government control and strict film censorship of the Stalin era took away any choice from film makers: The so-called socialist realism dominated in the Soviet culture of the s — the first half of the s, which certainly involved films about school. Undoubtedly, the socialist realism had nothing in common with genuine realism; it was more like an idealism created according to the official political dogmas of that time.
School students were united into a successful and happy collective body guided by wise tutors teachers, parents, party officialsable to shape their own destiny, i. Adherence to such values used to be the basic stereotype of success in that screen world.
Calaméo - School and university in the mirror of Soviet and Russian cinema.
Such values, attitudes and conduct in the cinema were not only to be reflected but also impressed, formed and strengthened. These values were constant throughout the film action. If a student temporarily betrayed these values, he successfully returned to them at the end of the film.
Venue and period of media texts. The scene in the films made in the s — the first half of the s about school is laid in school classrooms, corridors, courtyards and flats, and the time in the film coincides with the time when the film was released.
For example, the film The First Grader shows the beginning of the new school year: Stereotype devices of reality representation: As for negative characters boastful, deceitful, etc.
By the second half of the s the Soviet screen presented a super positive image of the teacher and educator which was approved and respected by the government honors, diplomas and other awards and the whole society. The old image was to legitimatize the Soviet one due to their common past. The main features of the pre-revolutionary intellectual myth the messianic idea, 18 enlightenment, asceticism, unselfishness were interpreted in a new way in the Stalin worldview.
A frame from the film The Village Teacher At the same time the Soviet cinematograph remembered to criticize the school and teachers of the czarist regime. The films The Conduit and Man in a Case presented negative images of grammar school teachers: Significant changes in the lives of the characters: There were also but very rare worse variants when a school student commits a theft of school property Personal File, Solution to the problem: Unlike the school topic the topic of university was marginal for the Soviet cinematography of the s — the first half of the s see, for example, The Right to a Woman, ; The Law of Life, and had no apparent impact on 19 film making.
Seemingly, university at that time was considered to be a too elite institution to be worthy of mass replicating on the screen. Thus, the hermeneutic analysis of media texts about school and university of the s — the first half of the s enables us to draw the conclusion that the Soviet cinematography based on the communist ideology: Soviet films about school and university of the "thaw" period The "thaw" in the USSR quite significantly changed media interpretations of school and university.
As for the schools - it meant democracy elements in the educational process, a certain, albeit constrained by ideology, creative freedom of teachers and students.
Prokhorov aptly notes, films about school in the s reflected the general spirit of the revived utopianism Prokhorov, In this context, it is interesting to compare two films of the s depicting schools of the s: The second one, on the contrary, also somewhat naively, but sincerely asserts the possibility of integration of the best representatives of the pre- revolutionary intelligentsia the principal of school for orphans named after Dostoevsky — Viktor Nikolayevich Sorokin, nicknamed VikNikSor in the process of creating a new school.
VikNikSor in the filigree performance by S. Jursky is "a great idealist and utopian. VikNikSor believes that a person is unique, and the collective of unique people can be an association of creative individuals who do not have to give up themselves and freedom to be together" Arcus, Both films were shot in black and white for a reason, so that the image on the screen reminded viewers of the surviving chronicles of the s. However, against the mediocre visual background of Beat, the Drum!
Equally extraordinary was the film montage. As for the use of black and white picture in films depicting schools, in our opinion, it was not always justified. Of course, the intention of the authors of Beat, the Drum! But what drove a director to choose to film in black and white a merry satirical comedy "Welcome, or No Trespassing! Apparently, there are good reasons why in the XXI century with the help of computer processing I think, without any damage to the artistic expressioncolor versions of the popular films were created - Spring in the Riverside Street and Come Tomorrow Presumably, Soviet cinematographers of the s were too susceptible to the fashion for the black-and-white stylistics of the French "new wave" and "cinema-verite", believing that modern films about schoolchildren should be as close as possible to the "chronicle" image.
Two conflicts unfold concurrently: In the course of the film viewers see obvious signs of a deficit of socialist times: However, conflicts are resolved by the end of the film: Notably, before this promise he utters a lofty monologue: But without communism I will not live!
And without the Komsomol I can not live! Most likely, this phrase appeared in the film as a reaction of scriptwriters to the adoption by the 22nd CPSU Congress of the Charter of the CPSU, including the Moral Code of the builder of communism, whose material base was promised to be created by By the way, the rhetoric about communism in the thaw films depicting education system underwent a curious transformation.
While in the picture Mishka, Serega and I these words sound quite seriously, and the drama about parents and children Big and Small ends with pretentious narrative comment: Was I a communist in my family life?
Are you ready to live and work in communism? Do you want a million? Arcus, in our opinion, very accurately noticed the characteristic feature of the thaw period films about schoolchildren: For example, in the film My friend, Kolka!
There is a boy standing out of the crowd, Kolka Snegirev.
But this time he is not a renegade and egoist, but on the contrary — a bright individuality, an artist, a man who searches for truth, and not a form, for real, not imaginary.
He requires breathing from life, and sincerity from the people. He is clearly loved by authors and spectators. His class wants to help him, get over troubles - but without the intention to change him, to assimilate with others. They like him the way he is. The truth is, the film did not escape from some treacle, especially in a touchingly happy ending, when Kolka, the founder of the SSoCS Secret Society of С-Studentsdeftly defeats carnapers and deserves the gratitude of the police and a vigorous pioneer song of classmates.
Non-standard students with strong personality and subtle inner world were the main characters in many other school films of the s: Wild Dog DingoCall, open the doorI loved you The cinema images of Soviet teachers changed in the thaw period, too.
Very important in this respect is the image of a school teacher from the melodrama Spring in the Riverside Street Actually, the authors of the film made sure that there was nothing shocking in this situation: Despite the lyrical melodrama of this story, it contained a kind of ideological overtone: And the main character — the teacher of the evening school Tatiana — is so young and inexperienced, that is really likely to fall in love with a charming Sasha, her, so-to-speak, "mentor" from the working class.
In the earlier mentioned film My Friend, Kolka! A conservative is the teacher Lydia Mikhailovna. In fact, she and a chairman of the pioneer council Valera Novikov "could become the ideal heroes for films in the previous decades.
Always 23 with some unfortunate young character who tore himself away from the collective and placed own interests above the interests of the class and school, there appeared to a number of wiser and more reasonable teachers and comrades ready to teach a harsh moral lesson, threatening to expel from school or exclude from pioneers or Komsomol members.
But Lydia Mikhailovna and Valera Novikov are not portrayed as ideal carriers of collective wisdom" Artemieva,p. In particular, in the drama Trains Go by the Windowsthe headmaster of a provincial boarding school, remarkably performed by L. Krugly, at first seems to be a positive democrat and a wise mentor for children and teens, while a traditional duo of a conservative middle aged school teacher and a young teacher a recent graduate of the university unfolds along.
However, gradually, the image of the ironic headmaster gives away the authoritarian features of a tough, soulless manager, and he turns out to be much more dangerous for a young heroine than explicit conservatives. Seemingly an outspoken conservative and a negative character in the satirical comedy Welcome, or No Trespassing!
Evstigneev, is also not so straightforward: Ideologically brought up Maria Pavlovna is certainly very worried: Thus, due to her interference, relationships of Ksenia and Boris are being discussed by school faculty, their classmates, parents, and neighbours. Today the conflict of the film by Y. However in things were different.
The problem of the first teenage love, that fell under the social pressure, was discussed earnestly in almost all press.
In a word, this film had about the same resonance in the s, as Little Vera in the end of the s. In the s the love language was slowly rehabilitated, but the sex language only remains to exist within medical or obscene vocabularies. The thaw period film criticism followed the same route" Romanova,p. As a result, the film scene of intimacy between Boris and Ksenia was cut shorter and voiced over.
Black-and-white visual picture distinctly portrays gloomy ill-provision, as though borrowed from the famous black sequence of Polish cinema of the late s: Moreover, it turns out that a lot of secondary film characters are united not because of mutual positive values, but because of their desire to hurt the feelings of vulnerable teens in love. Палякова фото смотреть бесплатно кончают в волосатые писки. Картинки эротических красивых девушек, истории измена группа сытся от дикова траха.
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